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    文人與鐵匠
    編者按:作者的文筆深厚,將文人、鐵匠用文字緊緊相連,先是解釋文人,在來深入鐵匠,最后以歷史長河里名人做基礎來深化主體,隨之拓展,將自己引出,有種“驀然回首,那人卻在燈火闌珊處”的感覺。感謝來稿,遙祝夏安。

    “文人”是現代詞,360百科解釋文人是一個專有名詞,指的是會寫文章的讀書人。喜歡寫作的人,無論他學歷高低,哪怕沒讀幾年書,但寫過不少文章的人,習慣上也歸在“文人”行列。典型的是莫言,莫言開始寫作時上學并不多,小學只上了五年級便輟學,好在又在部隊里上了藝術學院文學系。現今,很多人在從事寫作,寫出的作品是讓人看的,但這只是一廂情愿,別人愿意看,才說明你的作品具備了一定水平。如果作品能在報刊、雜志上發表,除了到達一定水平外,也說明作品適應了當今潮流,符合報刊、雜志刊出宗旨。作者至少取得了類似的成績,才具備了加入所在地“作家協會”的資格,加入了“作家協會”就是得到官方組織認可,好像就可以稱之為“作家”了,否則,充其量只是一個“寫手”。

    “鐵匠”是 鍛造鐵器的工匠,俗稱“打鐵的”。鐵匠是一門古老的職業,他們以鐵為原料,靠一把小小的鐵錘打造出各式各樣的生產工具和生活用品來養家糊口。鐵匠用來打鐵的工具有:小鐵錘、大鐵錘、鐵鉗、砧子等。據考古人員對出土寶劍的考古發現,在西周時期就已經使用鍛造的鐵制寶劍了,鍛制鐵質寶劍需要很高的技術,遠比鍛制生活用具、農具復雜得多,需要多少代打鐵人總結、積累經驗才能達到這樣的水平,這說明鍛造這個行當遠比西周時期更古老。傳說木匠、石匠的祖師爺是魯班,鐵匠的祖師爺是太上老君,而鐵匠打鐵用的砧子就是太上老君的膝蓋。在《西游記》中,太上老君的八卦煉丹爐煉出了使人長生不老的九轉金丹,也把孫悟空煉就了一雙火眼金睛。傳說太上老君也鍛造了很多神兵利器,所以鐵匠將其奉為祖師爺,也是跟道士的修行煉丹有關,因為在丹藥煉制是一個非常復雜的過程,也要用到煅燒等工藝。

    歷史記載有名的鐵匠有干將、歐冶子等,他們鑄造的寶劍寒光閃閃,削鐵如泥,出土的越王寶劍就是青銅鑄造。干將、歐冶子生平確切的記載并不多,多是傳說。他們主要是鑄劍,而實際這些工匠既鑄造青銅寶劍,也鍛造鐵質寶劍,當時的年代可能鑄鍛是不分家的,據傳龍泉寶劍的創始人就是歐冶子。《史記·刺客列傳》記載的專諸刺王僚,行刺用的“魚腸劍”就是鐵質寶劍,傳說就是歐冶子鍛造。前不久在電視中,研究人員專門對此進行講解、演示,如果魚腸劍是青銅鑄造,在刺防護厚重的盔甲時,容易折斷和不夠鋒利,必須是鐵質寶劍才能穿透厚重的盔甲,刺死王僚。

    從字面看,文人與鐵匠風馬牛不相及,是不相干的兩回事,但文人與鐵匠集于一身,比較典型的是三國時期曹魏思想家、音樂家、文學家嵇康。嵇康幼年聰穎,博覽群書,廣習諸藝,又喜愛老莊學說。身長七尺八寸,容止出眾,后娶魏武帝曹操曾孫女長樂亭主為妻 。司馬昭曾想拉攏嵇康,但嵇康在當時的政爭中傾向皇室一邊,對于司馬氏采取不合作態度,因此頗招忌恨。《晉書·嵇康傳》記載:“性絕巧而好鍛。宅中有一柳樹甚茂,乃激水圜之,每夏月,居其下以鍛。” 嵇康生性非常靈巧,喜歡打鐵。宅子中有一棵長得很茂盛的柳樹。于是繞著它挖了個水溝,每當到了夏天,嵇康就在那里打鐵。另一段記載:“初,康居貧,嘗與向秀共鍛于大樹之下,以自贍給。潁川鐘會,貴公子也,精練有才辯,故往造焉。康不為之禮,而鍛不輟。良久會去,康謂曰:‘何所聞而來?何所見而去?’會曰:‘聞所聞而來,見所見而去。’會以此憾之。”從這段記載看,嵇康不僅僅是打鐵,實際是開了一個打鐵鋪,一點收入,補貼家用。而嵇康與鐘會的對話更是歷史上有名的一段對對話,鐘會想結交嵇康,受到冷遇,從此結下仇隙。嵇康的友人呂安被其兄誣以不孝,嵇康出面為呂安辯護,鐘會即勸司馬昭乘機除掉呂、嵇。當時太學生三千人請求赦免嵇康,愿以康為師,司馬昭不許;臨刑,嵇康神色自若,奏《廣陵散》一曲,從容赴死。雖說是司馬昭處死了嵇康,但后人多歸咎于鐘會,是鐘會進讒言,害死了嵇康。嵇康“竹林七賢”之一,他的文學成就對后世產生很大影響,古曲《廣陵散》高亢、悲憤,更為千古絕唱。嵇康大約是唯一一位被歷史記載,既在文學上取得很高成就的文壇巨匠,又從事鍛造的業務,也就是說嵇康既是文人,又是鐵匠。嵇康身高一米八多,容貌俊美,身體健壯,那時如果有籃球運動,肯定是一個優秀的籃球中鋒。《嵇康傳》中提到的向秀,也有很高的文學造詣,也是“竹林七賢”之一。與嵇康一起打鐵,《向秀傳》有這樣一句:“康善鍛,秀為之佐,相對欣然,旁若無人。”在打鐵時向秀只是打下手,但他們卻非常投入,以至于“旁若無人”,這向秀也是文人、鐵匠。

    當今,在文壇取得成就又是鐵匠出身的是蔣子龍。蔣子龍1941年出生,1958年8月參加工作,中專學歷。曾任中國作家協會第五、六、七屆副主席、天津作家協會主席、天津文聯副主席。現任天津市作家協會名譽主席。作為著名作家和中國文化的使者,他先后出訪過歐美亞等十幾個國家。2018年12月18日,黨中央、國務院授予蔣子龍同志改革先鋒稱號,頒授改革先鋒獎章,并獲評“改革文學”作家的代表。

    蔣子龍先生年輕時興趣廣泛,他喜歡籃球、乒乓球、二胡、手風琴,還當過文藝演出隊的隊長。我是大約在上世紀八十年代,從報刊和雜志上的文章里,知道了蔣子龍,對他的作品非常欣賞。蔣子龍從機械學校畢業就參加了工作,當了幾年兵,回來在鍛造車間踏踏實實工作了十年,因工作出色,被提拔擔任了車間主任、副廠長等職,是地地道道的鐵匠。蔣子龍共出版了87本書,一千多萬字,顯然這是艱苦的勞動成果。他說這些書他都很喜歡,不喜歡就不出了。

       現在,有一筆名“魯公青夫”的作者,經常在幾個文化網站發表文章,文章閱讀量頗高,博客與公眾號戶名也是“魯公青夫”。魯公青夫十六歲就進入機械學校學習鍛造,畢業進入工廠也是在鍛造車間,在車間生產第一線踏踏實實工作了十五年,后進入技術組,負責鍛造和沖壓工裝模具設計與繪制,又在鍛造車間和科室擔任過領導,是一位地地道道的鐵匠。

       魯公青夫酷愛文藝、體育活動,酷愛唱歌,二胡、笛子演奏有聲有色。曾代表威海市少年籃球隊,與外地球隊比賽。游泳、乒乓球、羽毛球均為所愛,更在上千人的工廠擔任籃球隊長、教練二十余年。退休后,魯公青夫開始了寫作,由于喜愛古典文學、古詩詞,作品大量引用典故、詩詞,作品富含哲理,部分作品在報刊及雜志發表,出版了作家合集,預計不久將會出版專輯。

    魯公青夫是青島作家協會會員,發表散文一百余篇,三十余萬字,曾作《打鐵的》一文,詳述打鐵經歷。按照文人定義,他是否也歸在文人范疇?!當今,工業如此發達,從事鍛造的人不計其數,但能寫文章著寥寥無幾。歐陽修的《醉翁亭記》中有這樣一句:“醉能同其樂,醒能述以文者,太守也。”寓其意:“工能同與鍛,暇余述以文者,魯公青夫也。”

    如果嵇康是文人、鐵匠,那么嵇康發出的光芒與日月同輝;如果蔣子龍是文人、鐵匠,那么它的光芒如同閃耀的星光;而魯公青夫也稱作文人、鐵匠,他發出光芒就如同小油燈,照在一間陋室孤芳自賞罷了。魯公青夫與嵇康、蔣子龍出現在同一篇文章里,明顯是在蹭嵇康與蔣子龍的熱度,好在他們都是地地道道得鐵匠,這是無疑的。

    魯公青夫謂誰?——在下是也!

    4
         
    書簽: 編輯:濁酒清憂
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