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    說貧窮
    2019-03-05 21:23:29 作者:魯公青夫 】 瀏覽:1585次 評論:0
    編者按:一篇極好的哲理文章。本文把貧和窮分開講解,從古代人們對貧、窮二字的解讀,到現代人們對貧窮二字的認識,引經據典,深入淺出極易看懂。同時作者又通過對貧窮二字的解讀,延伸到事物的兩面性的特點。窮也好,富也好,都是有兩面性的,如劍有雙刃,既能殺敵,也能自殘。所以名家有:“物極必反”的論斷。文章中的警言,值得我們參考。本文是一篇很有中國哲學內涵的好文章,引據、講解、論述,都有獨到之處,雖不能面面俱到,但一般的道理也闡述的清楚明了。自得大家一睹。謝謝作者!
    貧窮,是收入少,生活困難,與“富有”相對。在中文里貧、窮兩字本解作“極度不足”。貧窮是個很廣泛的觀念,沒有絕對的定義,滿足與否則是很個人的感覺,這和幸福有點類似,幸福也是一種感覺,它不取決于人們的生活狀態,而取決于人的心態。貧窮一詞日常使用里則指“缺乏錢財,生活拮據困乏”。造成貧窮的原因很多,像處在窮山僻壤的人們由于交通不便,或干旱缺水,也能造成貧窮;再如一個家庭或因車禍意外、或因重病入院,因為高昂的醫藥費和失去勞動力而陷入貧窮。現代的貧窮不限于錢財方面的不足,有些人認為貧窮的定義是主觀、具比較性的;有人認為是關乎道德標準的;也有人認為可以從科學角度去理解貧窮的意思,歐盟國家對貧窮的定義就包含了資源分布是否平等。經濟社會的今天,貧窮的概念要深入涉及到精神領域、思想感情的進步與否。當前社會,個別有錢人不講道德、不講信用、不講禮儀,只知沒有廉恥的摟錢,這樣的人被譏笑為“窮的只剩錢了”,這種人是不被人尊重的,不被社會認可。因此,貧窮不再是簡單的“缺錢”,而是一種不理想、不為社會認可的生活方式。在中國古代漢語中貧、窮兩字是分開解釋的,是絕然不同含義的。貧指的是沒有錢的意思,“貧”字原意是缺乏、不足,與其他字組合才能表達不同含義,如:貧寒、貧瘠、貧血;貧鐵礦則是鐵品位很低的鐵礦。而僧、道則謙稱:貧僧、貧道,這又成了道教、佛教一些人的自我稱呼。所以古語“家貧”,才是現代意義的家里很窮。漢朝初年的丞相陳平《史記·陳丞相世家》記載:“少時家貧,好讀書。有田三十畝,獨與兄伯居。”這是說陳平小時候家貧,但好讀書。家里有田三十畝,自己與哥哥陳伯住在一起。家有三十畝地為什么還說“貧”?按說“三十畝地一頭牛,老婆孩子熱炕頭。”這是多少人夢寐以求的小康生活了;我想,可能當時畝產量很低,再可能家里沒有牛,所以“家貧”。漢武帝時的司馬相如則是真正的“家貧”,《史記·司馬相如列傳》記載:“相如歸,而家貧,無以自業。”卓文君與司馬相如私奔,來到司馬相如成都的家里:“家居徒四壁立。”看到除了四面墻壁立在那里,什么也沒有,這才是真正的“赤貧”。古語“窮”,指的是沒有官爵、沒社會地位的意思。孟子有句:“窮則獨善其身,達則兼善天下”,意思是不得志的時候就要管好自己的道德修養,得志的時候就要努力讓天下人都能得到好處。這句話里的“窮”字,就不含一點生活拮據、沒有錢財的意思。達,百度詞典的一種解釋是:得到顯要的地位,如顯達、達官貴人;窮和達互為反義詞。孔子有句:“君子固窮,小人窮斯濫矣”,這里的“窮”也是困厄的意思,不是指錢財;君子可以安于困厄,而小人遇到困厄就會為非作歹。“窮”的一種解釋是:達到極點,如唐詩:“欲窮千里目,更上一層樓。”“窮”還表示是:完了、終盡的意思,如:日暮途窮;《荊軻刺秦王》中有一句:“圖窮而匕首見”,燕國太子丹欲刺殺秦王,派荊軻獻給秦王督亢地圖,當地圖完全展開(圖窮),藏在地圖里的匕首就露了出來。“窮”也代表全部、完整,如:窮其所有,是表示把其“全部”都奉獻、展現出來。另外窮寇勿追 、窮途末路中的“窮”字,都是“完了”的意思,形容到了無路可走的地步。窮究、窮詰、窮追不舍則是深刻追究的意思,不達目的誓不罷休。所以,古語中的“窮”代表多重含義,和現代“窮”的含義根本不沾邊。貧窮分為兩類:絕對貧窮和相對貧窮。司馬遷筆下的陳平“家貧”,但卻有三十畝地,而司馬相如的“家貧”是:“家居徒四壁立。”司馬相如至少有一個家,比起流離失所、無家可歸的,應該不在一個檔次,可見這貧窮是有區別的。而現代社會,不發達國家,像非洲個別國家有的因干旱,他們連一日三餐也不能保障;而發達國家如美國,窮人也有自己的汽車,也有自己的住房,這種差別還是巨大的。《資治通鑒》里司馬光有這樣一句:“貧不學儉。夫多財者,奢欲之所自來也。” 司馬光引古人的話說,貧窮的人自然不必學勤儉。但有巨額財富,是產生奢欲的根源,人就會自覺、不自覺的驕、奢、淫、欲,這就難免走向衰敗。有道是:“富不過三代”,這句話是含有深刻哲理的,現實也確實如此,而“窮”卻是輩輩窮,這是被現實證明了的。一部分偶然富起來的人,本身不具備必要的修養素質,忘乎所以,放縱了對子女的管教,從而使子女不知道財富的來之不易,這一代就能把辛苦積累的錢財揮霍大半,到了第三代就徹底敗了,我們身邊可以看到很多這樣的例子。做官有時也到第三代就敗了,古時作官往往世襲,《史記·白起王翦列傳》有一句:“夫為將三世者必敗。”這是說從祖輩就當將軍,到了第三代必然敗亡。王翦是秦始皇的一員大將,為秦始皇統一六國功不可沒;兒子王賁也是秦朝時有名戰將,跟隨父親出生入死;孫子王離也在秦朝為將,秦二世末年帶兵圍攻趙地,項羽救趙,擊敗秦軍,俘虜了秦將王離,王翦家族世代英名瞬間蒙羞;這也驗證了“夫為將三世者必敗”這一論斷。由此看“夫為將三世者必敗”與“富不過三代”大約都是一種不為人所控制的規律。有句古話:“貧盜富淫”,極端貧窮的人往往淪為盜賊,在荒年收成大減、官府盤剝,他們甚至聚眾山林成為強盜;富有的人則三房四妾、尋花問柳。現代少數有了錢的人則養小二、小三,或有多名情婦;貧盜富淫這種現象也是現實存在的。孟子有句:“富貴不能淫,貧賤
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