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  • 祖克曼演奏的布魯赫《g小調第一小提琴協奏曲》 - 百家雜談 - 火種文學網_中國公益文學開拓者!
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    祖克曼演奏的布魯赫《g小調第一小提琴協奏曲》
    2019-02-20 20:31:25 作者:楚云婷 】 瀏覽:1453次 評論:2
    編者按:文筆縝密,這篇文章所提及到的經典作品,我曾都有所欣賞,世界經典名曲的作品都來自于勤奮好學的偉大音樂家,并延續到如今未有衰減。對此篇作品我只能做一般個人點評,因為涉及的音樂知識少,請見諒!

       有件音樂軼事:馬克斯·布魯赫請求勃拉姆斯聆聽自己演奏一首最新創作的小提琴協奏曲。勃拉姆斯同意了,于是坐到鋼琴旁邊。布魯赫以極大的熱情和力度演奏了自己的作品,由于天熱,弄得滿頭大汗。布魯赫演奏完之后,勃拉姆斯站起來走到鋼琴邊,用大拇指和中指拈起一張手稿,摩挲了幾下,說道:“我說,你從哪兒買的這種樂譜?紙質真是一流啊!”可以想見當時的布魯赫是多么尷尬,其實他也是一位優秀的作曲家。

       對音樂愛好者來說,德國作曲家布魯赫并不陌生。他的g小調第一號小提琴協奏曲,作于1866年,年僅二十八歲,是繼門德爾松的《e小調小提琴協奏曲》之后,被演奏得最多的小提琴協奏曲之一,特別著名,時至今日,它仍然是一部膾炙人口的作品,堪稱布魯赫的代表作。

       g小調第一小提琴協奏曲感情豐富、浪漫抒情,深受人們的喜愛,是音樂會上經常演奏的曲目。在音樂愛好者心目中它屬于“十大小提琴協奏曲”之一,與門德爾松的e小調第一小提琴協奏曲在抒情風格上很相似,優美而浪漫,旋律性強,容易使音樂愛好者上口,在出版的唱片中,這兩首協奏曲經常被編輯在一起。

       布魯赫的第一小提琴協奏曲與門德爾松的小提琴協奏曲不僅在浪漫風格上近似,在其它方面也有一些有趣的聯系。這兩部協奏曲的第二樂章,也就是柔板樂章都寫得異常恬美溫柔,可以把人引入一種半催眠狀態,心理學家把這兩個柔板樂章與其它一些音樂的慢樂章編在一起,用于心理臨床實驗,一個作用是制造一種心理環境,進行語言記憶訓練,另一個作用是克服失眠。

       此曲的旋律帶有一些甜蜜的傷感,并且具有演奏家所喜愛的演奏效果,充滿了旋律上的創意與形式上的自由,在技巧方面雖然不很容易,卻也不至于過分艱深,聽眾很容易喜歡上它。

        布魯赫的第一小提琴協奏曲于1866年舉行首演,很快就取得成功。樂譜出版時,布魯赫把它題獻給小提琴的一代宗師約阿希姆, 由于約阿希姆的演出推廣,這首協奏曲很快就被許多演奏家接受,并列為自己的保留曲目。從那時起到現在,一百多年過去了,這部協奏曲從來沒有衰微過。

       樂曲的第一樂章由微弱滾奏的定音鼓引入,獨奏小提琴一開始就進入大開大合的華彩樂段,跌宕起伏的樂句光彩四射,但是定音鼓沉穩鎮定地一步步走來,暗示著某種不安,這里定音鼓彳亍不肯離去的聲音令人印象尤深,它使洋溢著優美旋律的第一樂章罩上一層隱含的憂郁,感情就更豐富了。第二樂章的柔板富于歌唱性,恬美的旋律使人們常把它和門德爾松的小提琴協奏曲慢樂章相提并論,當做柔板樂章的典范。往復回環一浪高過一浪優美深情的傾訴特別動人。第三樂章充滿了光輝與激情,小提琴使用了大量的雙音技巧,這部協奏曲的演奏難度都集中在這個樂章。在這個精神飽滿的樂章里,小提琴和樂隊都有熱情的發揮,帶給人內心的激動。在這個樂章里,小提琴和弦樂器組交替出現的走句,它在熱烈激情中平靜地一帶而過,有驀然回首燈火闌珊的妙處。善于捕捉瞬間之美而不事鋪張,給人出乎意料的美感,其微妙精致達到了一個藝術家難以企及的境界。

       以色列小提琴家平夏斯·祖克曼被稱為是世界古典樂壇的奇跡。他是小提琴教育家加拉米安的三大弟子之一,曾榮獲21次格萊美提名并兩度獲獎,更是與祖賓梅塔、阿什凱納齊、巴倫勃伊姆、帕爾曼等人齊名的音樂大師,美國總統里根曾親自授予他藝術獎章。

       平夏斯·祖克曼從小隨父親學習,最初學雷高德笛和單簧管,8歲考入特拉維夫音樂學院,隨費赫爾學習小提琴。1962年在斯特恩及美國-以色列基金會的贊助下,至美國朱利亞德音樂學院,隨小提琴教育家加拉米安深造。1966年參加意大利斯波萊托音樂節,嶄露頭角。1967年在紐約參加第25屆萊文特里德比賽與同學鄭京和并列第一名。1968-1969年替代生病的斯特恩參加一系列演出,開始成名。

       1980年代后,祖克曼開始作為指揮家活躍在舞臺。1980-1987年擔任了圣保羅室內樂團音樂總監。此外還擔任過巴爾的摩交響樂團夏季音樂節音樂總監、倫敦南岸音樂節音樂總監、達拉斯交響樂團的國際夏季音樂節音樂總監及首席客座指揮。還指揮過許多北美樂團,諸如芝加哥、匹茲堡、密爾沃基、蒙特利爾等交響樂團。1998年受聘為加拿大國家藝術中心樂團音樂總監。此外還是美國密爾沃基交響樂團的常駐藝術家,曼哈頓音樂學校的祖克曼表演項目的主席。

       祖克曼臺風很好,妥妥地一位演奏大師的形象。他的演奏有很好的控制力和分寸感,既不夸張賣弄,也不過分熱情,他在小提琴高音弦上的演奏極富穿透力,而在低音弦上的演奏則充滿了甜美和蕩氣回腸。他還有一個十分獨特的演奏個性,即在演奏中常常強調突如其來的重音,讓人驚艷。

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