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  • 談談京劇的藝術價值 - 百家雜談 - 火種文學網_中國公益文學開拓者!
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    談談京劇的藝術價值
    2018-09-29 13:17:07 作者:楚云婷 】 瀏覽:3420次 評論:3
    編者按:京劇過時論曾甚囂塵上,但她還是被人品味著,欣賞著,他們不是遺老遺少,而是鐘情其中,為之感染,一招一式,咿咿呀呀,就我在公園亭子間,茶樓內的所遇所見,無不讓人從中生出美感,甚至一種情懷,教人忘情和戀戀。但作為國粹,又不能不說,欣賞的水平和難度一定是有的,正如曲高和者寡,不是像流行歌曲那樣,誰都可以OK幾嗓。這正如作者說了的唐詩宋詞,其之于梨花體的現代詩,相較,便不言而喻。京劇是我國的歷史文化遺產,其尚能逐漸被重視,甚或選入課文,加以普及,是歷史文化之幸,不至于讓人數典忘祖。承傳,是一個優秀民族應有的品質。作者從京劇的歷史說起,豐富的史料讓人增識增智,也讓人感知了京劇的發揚與希望所在。筆墨十分嫻熟,所論精辟,難得的好文,欣賞!感謝對火種的支持,祝創作愉快!
       幾年前一則京劇入中小學教材看似很平常的消息,沒想到在互聯網上掀起了巨大的波瀾。拋開引入樣板戲是否合適的爭論不談,對傳統京劇藝術價值的看法,也在網民中形成了壁壘分明的陣營。
       當年徽班進京并扎根下來,既逢天時地利也仰人和。1790年,曾經在京城盛極一時的秦腔被清廷禁演已五個年頭了,“都中人士,喜聽新聲”。當浙閩總督伍拉納為給乾隆皇帝八十壽辰祝壽,帶了當時在南方頗負盛名的由高朗亭領班的安慶徽戲班“三慶班”入京時,歷史給了京劇一個千載難逢的機遇。京劇不是從小到大,從簡到繁,獨立孕育誕生的,而是從其它地方戲的基礎上發展起來的。它一開始就站在很高的起點上,以徽漢同臺,皮黃并用為開端,繼承和發展了徽劇、漢劇和昆劇的優良傳統,并不斷吸取梆子、高腔以至各種地方小戲的優秀劇目、音樂和表演藝術來豐富和發展自己,集中戲曲藝術優秀傳統于一身,兼容并包,化而用之,很快就在京城紅極一時,繼而成了風糜全國的劇種。
       眾所周知,昆劇曾在我國歷史上是第一個堪稱“國劇” 的劇種,獨領風騷幾百年,其藝術價值之高早有定評,但繼它之后而崛起的京劇的藝術水平卻超過了它。京劇不但繼承了昆劇的精華,也大大擴展了藝術表現力。昆劇那種“水磨腔” 過于柔媚,其細膩婉轉的特點對表達那種高亢激昂的內容有所局限。而京劇吸收了大量北方戲曲的因素,能把那種慷慨蒼勁的情感表達得淋漓盡致。京劇這種剛柔并濟的特點使它能輕而易舉地表現人類生活和情感的無限領域,在這個方面也超過了其它劇種。昆劇以曲笛托腔,既費力氣,和腔又欠婉轉。而京劇改用京胡托腔后,音調從容婉轉表現力大增。
       “京劇過時了,是一種垂死的藝術”,這大概是反對者附合之聲最多的說法。其實“藝術之樹常青”,從來沒有過時不過時之分,能說古希臘雕塑、莎士比亞戲劇過時了嗎?唐詩宋詞早已融入我們民族的血液,化入我們的潛意識,以致于我們張口說話也須臾不離。京劇不是博物館的藏品,不是只供歷史和學術研究的古董,也不僅僅是作為文化遺產需要保護和傳承的文物,而是生機勃勃值得發揚光大的國寶。京劇藝術之博大精深,她所能反映和表現的人類情感和審美意味的廣度和深度,是如今的流行音樂所不可比擬的。兩百年來的千錘百煉,在融合眾多劇種精華的基礎上,通過不斷的創新和發展形成了一大批極富表現力和美感的曲調,無論是刻畫人類情感還是帶給我們韻味十足的審美享受,都是獨特又極富魅力的。當她隨著劇情的展開而趨于高潮之際,其運腔之細膩和激越同樣能達到震撼人心的效果。京劇這類板腔體戲曲音樂與西方交響樂很相似,她那些極具動力和美感的基本曲調,在不斷變化和創新中能窮盡人類最深刻的情感而令人心旌搖曳陶醉其中,其表現力與西方歌劇不分軒輊。美國當代著名戲劇權威羅伯特.科恩在談到京劇時說:“中國戲曲講故事的傳統、雄壯的音樂、壯觀的視覺和雜技表演使觀眾能夠真正領略世界上最扣人心弦、最宏偉華麗的一種戲劇藝術”。
       有些人看不起京劇中大量的打擊樂,視之為噪音。其實京劇中的打擊樂是為了表演的需要(比如京劇有很多武戲的成份等),而且打擊樂多并不能成為音樂落后的理由。且不論非洲鼓樂那震撼人心的藝術效果,就是在西方現代音樂大師如巴托克、斯特拉文斯基、梅西昂等手里,打擊樂成了他們許多重要音樂作品的主角,而弦樂等則退及次要地位甚至不用。有些人認為京劇中唱腔和曲牌的程式化特點缺乏藝術價值,其實程式化并不妨礙表演中根據需要靈活處理,偉大的德國作曲家瓦格納的樂劇就有很多所謂的“主導動機”(每個重要的人和事及物品就用一段固定的旋律短片來代表),而他作品中最動人心弦的音樂往往就是由若干個“主導動機” 巧妙地交織在一起達到的。
        其實,欣賞京劇如同欣賞西方古典音樂一樣,在開始時也是不太習慣難以領悟的。但只要放下成見,多多聆聽,它回饋給你的豐富的藝術享受是難以言傳的。二十世紀上半葉京劇藝術風靡神州大地,她那令無數愛好者沉醉其中的影響力,是我們今天年輕的一代所無法想象的。梅蘭芳訪美是當時中美文化交流的一樁大事,可謂盛況空前;而德國戲劇大師布萊希特則盛贊京劇是屹立于世界三大戲劇藝術體系之一的典范,他在其中發現了探尋心靈世界、情感世界所需要的一套嶄新陌生的表演體系,借其傳達自然的神奇,宇宙的幽深,生命的莫測,人心的真實,使西方戲劇走向一種全新的綜合。當年就是那些西化派的代表人物如胡適先生,即使受西方藝術的影響而在理論上貶低京劇,也被京劇唱腔那雋永的魅力弄得神魂顛倒而無法忘懷。
        多年前,哲學家葉秀山還在文章中感嘆在京劇領域我們還缺乏大演員和大評論家,可喜的是今日梨園已是大家輩出,像張火丁、李勝素、于魁智和孟廣祿等已堪稱名角。但京劇的振興應該是全方位的,一個諾大的劇種目前搞創作的專業人員全國廖廖無幾,真是令人啼笑皆非。在京劇與大眾間架起橋梁普及知識的工作非常缺乏,在中小城市根本就沒有觀劇的機會,這與德國幾乎每個城鎮都有歌劇院和經常演出有天壤之別。中國目前的京劇事業似乎全靠藝術家和散兵游勇式的票友在支撐,此等狀況下要談振興國劇又何其難矣!
    贊(12) 贊賞與支持
    最近閱讀文友: [] [楚云婷] [老囡囡] [老翁] [劉金平] (查看更多)
         
    書簽:談談 京劇 藝術 價值 編輯:石泉
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